Hydrogen peroxide is a potent oxidizing agent. The whitening action is a result of oxygen free radicals that oxidize larger pigment molecules into smaller, less visible molecules.
By the European Directive dental professionals are only permitted to sell products that contain a maximum of 6% hydrogen peroxide. Over-the-counter products that do not require the supervision of a dental professional may contain only 0.01% hydrogen peroxide. These products are ineffective in whitening the teeth as the concentration of peroxide is too low.
Carbamide peroxide is hydrogen peroxide compounded with urea. Urea helps stabilise the formula giving carbamide peroxide a more predictable and longer shelf life than hydrogen peroxide alone.
By the European Directive, dental professionals can prescribe up to 16% carbamide peroxide. In the presence of water, carbamide peroxide degrades into urea and hydrogen peroxide. Any given volume of carbamide peroxide will yield 35% volume of hydrogen peroxide when it breaks down.
A notable difference between hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide is the rate of breakdown, and therefore, the rate of release of oxygen ions. Carbamide peroxide is a more stable molecule and breaks down more slowly than hydrogen peroxide. Carbamide releases about 50% of its peroxide in the first 2 to 4 hours, then the remainder over the next 2 to 6 hours. Hydrogen peroxide breaks down almost immediately, releasing its peroxides entirely within the first hour. It is thought that due to this relatively concentrated bombardment of peroxides on the pulp, hydrogen peroxide produces more sensitivity than carbamide peroxide of a comparable concentration.
Our Biomin toothpastes have been manufactured to ensure a more comfortable whitening experience, and to prolong the effects of tooth whitening. There is a wealth of clinical studies to show that Biomin helps to rebuild the tooth surface, replacing lost minerals and reducing sensitivity.
Boutique Biomin Toothpaste should be used 2 weeks prior to whitening, and throughout the whitening process. It can be used after the whitening is completed to help maintain white teeth and reduce the symptoms of sensitivity.
Boutique Biomin formula contains a new generation of bioactive glass, incorporating fluoride, phosphate and calcium ions which are released gradually over 12 hours.
As it dissolves, the glass structure precipitates as fluorapatite which aids remineralisation of tooth enamel. Fluorapatite is more stable and resistant to acidic attack than hydroxyapatite formed by previous generation bioactive Glass. Biomin particles chemically bond to calcium in the enamel, and as they dissolve the ions occlude exposed dentinal tubules which prevents hydraulic conductance, and reduces sensitivity.
Biomin is engineered for ‘smart activation’ in acidic environments, such as following consumption of certain food and drink. Low pH causes the bioactive glass to dissolve more rapidly, neutralising the acid, restoring pH balance and replacing lost minerals.
Boutique Whitening is backed up with the decades of research that underpin dentist supervised home whitening. There are studies that demonstrate that tooth whitening is a safe and effective treatment with very little in the way of side-effects and no associated damage to the teeth.
Tooth whitening is one of the most researched cosmetic procedures in the world and has a wealth of evidence to support the effectiveness and safety of the take home technique, if correct protocols are observed. There are many studies that exist which demonstrate the effects of peroxide on the various layers of the human tooth.
Dentine is affected more by the whitening process than enamel tissue. Spyrides GM, et al, study from 2000 showed that dentine bond strength decreased by as much as 76% post whitening. Further research from Na-Young Jeong, et al, in 2006 showed that 2 weeks was sufficient to allow the dentine to recover and bond strengths returned to near the same as pre-whitening levels.
Always schedule any restorative work at least 2 weeks after the patient has finished whitening. If there is any immediate bonding required, soaking the dentine in a 70% ethanol solution for 2 minutes can restore bond strengths to near pre-whitening levels.
Owing to the sensitivity associated with tooth whitening, it is often wrongly assumed that whitening causes pulpal damage. JO Fugaro, et al, did a study in 2004 on the reaction of pulpal tissue to two weeks use of 10% carbamide peroxide. The findings from this study demonstrated that 10% carbamide peroxide can cause mild, localized pulp reactions. However, these did not affect the overall health of the pulp tissue and were reversible within two weeks post-treatment. Therefore, two weeks of treatment with 10% carbamide peroxide is considered safe for the pulp.
Another study by Cohen showed that hydrogen peroxide up to 35% concentration was harmless to the pulp. It is a safe assumption that no long term harm will come to the pulp from the concentrations of whitening solution that are used in home whitening.
Enamel is not significantly affected by the use of peroxide based products. A study by Leonard, et al, in 2001 assessed the effect of 10% carbamide peroxide on the surface morphology of enamel after 2 weeks, and again after 6 months, using electron microscopy at 2000 times magnification. There was no significant effect on the surface of enamel immediately after whitening and it did not worsen over time.
Without good whitening trays, it is very difficult to achieve good results from home supervised tooth whitening. The trays often have more of an impact on the results than the type of gels used.
Our trays are manufactured to a very specific protocol. Our manufacturing process follows the results of a literature review we undertook to ascertain the best design components of a whitening tray.